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Standards for smart cards

To date, three main approaches to the standardization of smart cards have been identified: international standards;de facto standards from consortia;patents and intellectual property copyrights. The predecessors of the modern smart card a plastic credit card, is used as a means of identification for payment transactions. A credit card is a means of confirming the identity and financial status issued by the issuer. As the use of credit cards became convenient and widespread, the need to ensure the compatibility of cards of different issuers...

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Java cards for EMV Software

Implementation of Java technology in smart cards According to the Java Card specification, a smart card has a Java virtual machine that is activated when the card is finished and deactivated at the end of the card’s life cycle. There are several classes that are relatively easy to build a file tree that conforms to the ISO/IEC 7816-4 specification. The main computing components of a smart card are: applets containing a file tree and program code for commands;commands for managing applets. The program code and the associated file tree...

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Smart card EMV software with downloadable code

Using a ROM-based operating system in a smart card with a fixed set of commands usually allows you to meet the needs of only one application. At the same time, the use of such cards is advisable in those cases. when the number of cards for a given app is large, and. the app features are small and have become established over time. The timing of the development of ROM-based smart cards has over time ceased to meet the growing needs of the smart card market. Therefore, in the 90s of the twentieth century, one of the main directions in the...

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Files in smart cards

Smart card file systems are similar in structure (as specified in ISO/IEC 7816-4) to DOS or UNIX file systems. At the same time, smart card file systems have certain features specific to smart cards. The most significant of these is the lack of a human-machine interface. Files are addressed using hexadecimal codes, and all commands are strictly based on this addressing, since the exchange of messages takes place only between two computers. Another significant feature of smart card file systems is the use of limited non-volatile EEPROM memory....

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Placing the program code in the smart card memory

The chip surface area per 1-bit EEPROM cell is four times that of a 1-bit ROM cell. Therefore, for purely economic reasons, the ROM should contain as much program code as possible. In the ROM of the microcontroller, the entire operating system core is placed, as well as the main parts of the other operating system programs. In order to make the size of the expensive EEPROM as small as possible, some operating systems run entirely in ROM with only data stored in the EEPROM. Usually, in the completed version of the smart card software, only a...

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Smart Card Software Security

The security of smart card software is based on the use of cryptographic information protection. Cryptography is used to authenticate system objects, such as users, cards, and terminals, and to encrypt the smart card’s communication with the outside world. Cryptographic keys are stored in the card files, and cryptographic algorithms and protocols are executed in the card software. Cryptographic functions built into the smart card to meet its own security requirements can also be used to perform security functions in other systems. The...

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EMV Software for Smart Cards

Smart card software is useful to divide by purpose into application and system programs. Application programs use the computing capabilities and memory capacity of smart cards in the same way as any other computer, and do not protect smart card data. System programs, on the contrary, are used directly to improve the properties of the smart card to save data and ensure their protection. Host computer applications use the smart card to perform the same functions alternatively (for example, when an encryption key or medical record is preferred...

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Production and specification of smart cards

Today, the magnetic stripe no longer guarantees the necessary level of protection of information from forgery. Therefore, manufacturers began to produce cards with a chip, which are very often called smart cards. Smart cards can perform various data processing operations. The main advantage of smart cards is their reliability, security and extensive functionality, and the disadvantage is the relatively high cost. The cost of smart cards is determined by the price of the chip, depending on the size of the internal memory and for a circulation...

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Smart Card memory architecture

Apart from the processor, the most important elements of a microcontroller are different types of memory. Smart card microcontrollers have three types of memory: random access memory (RAM), permanent memory (ROM), and non-volatile memory (EEPROM). RAMRAM is a part of the smart card’s memory in which data can be stored and changed during a session. The number of memory accesses is unlimited. Power supply is required for the RAM to work. When the power is turned off or temporarily disconnected, the contents of the RAM are not saved. A RAM...

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Security of using EMV Software in microprocessor cards

Smart Card Central Processing Unit The smart card processor requires high reliability. Therefore, smart cards usually use processors that have been tested for a long time in other areas. Smart card manufacturers prefer to trust older processors that have been tested in practice, rather than experiment with the latest developments of semiconductor chip manufacturers. A similar approach is taken by the aerospace industry, for which the functional safety of the components used is vital. Typically, the size of addressable memory in a smart card...

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