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Lifecycle of EMV smart cards

Other specifications and standards for smart cards The international standards ISO 7816, ISO/IEC 14443, ISO/IEC 15633 and ISO / IEC 10373 are undoubtedly the most important for general-purpose smart cards. In addition to the above-mentioned basic standards for general-purpose smart cards, there are also standards that define the use of smart cards in certain areas, such as healthcare, transportation, banking, e-commerce, and identification. Since a smart card is always only a part of an information technology, it is subject to a wide range of...

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Remote communication for EMV Software

The term “remote-connected cards” defines smart cards that transmit data to a terminal at a distance of a few centimeters to about one meter. This characteristic of smart cards is of great interest for applications in which data should be exchanged between the card and the terminal without the mandatory requirement for the user to pick up the card and insert it into the terminal. Such applications are used for access control, identification of vehicles and luggage, such as electronic driver’s licenses, airline tickets, etc....

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Production of the chip and the generation of OS smart card

Smart Card Application Layer Protocols The ISO/IEC 7816-4 standard defines the functions directly applied by smart card applications. It describes two classes of functions: a set of functions covering the application programming interface (API) through which application programs in the channel on the reader side can access files and information in these files inside the file system. The file system is considered as a fully defined hierarchical structure;security features that can be applied to restrict access to card application programs or...

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Link layer protocols for smart cards

For data exchange between the reader and the card, the ISO 7816-3 standard defines two link layer protocols: Protocol T = 0;Protocol T = 1. The T = 0 protocol is an asynchronous one-command-response protocol. When the card receives a command from the reader, it performs the requested operations and sends back to the reader the response corresponding to this command. After that, the reader can send the next command to the card at any time it needs. In this protocol, there is no strict time binding between the commands sent sequentially by the...

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Standards for smart cards

To date, three main approaches to the standardization of smart cards have been identified: international standards;de facto standards from consortia;patents and intellectual property copyrights. The predecessors of the modern smart card a plastic credit card, is used as a means of identification for payment transactions. A credit card is a means of confirming the identity and financial status issued by the issuer. As the use of credit cards became convenient and widespread, the need to ensure the compatibility of cards of different issuers...

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Java cards for EMV Software

Implementation of Java technology in smart cards According to the Java Card specification, a smart card has a Java virtual machine that is activated when the card is finished and deactivated at the end of the card’s life cycle. There are several classes that are relatively easy to build a file tree that conforms to the ISO/IEC 7816-4 specification. The main computing components of a smart card are: applets containing a file tree and program code for commands;commands for managing applets. The program code and the associated file tree...

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Smart card EMV software with downloadable code

Using a ROM-based operating system in a smart card with a fixed set of commands usually allows you to meet the needs of only one application. At the same time, the use of such cards is advisable in those cases. when the number of cards for a given app is large, and. the app features are small and have become established over time. The timing of the development of ROM-based smart cards has over time ceased to meet the growing needs of the smart card market. Therefore, in the 90s of the twentieth century, one of the main directions in the...

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Files in smart cards

Smart card file systems are similar in structure (as specified in ISO/IEC 7816-4) to DOS or UNIX file systems. At the same time, smart card file systems have certain features specific to smart cards. The most significant of these is the lack of a human-machine interface. Files are addressed using hexadecimal codes, and all commands are strictly based on this addressing, since the exchange of messages takes place only between two computers. Another significant feature of smart card file systems is the use of limited non-volatile EEPROM memory....

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Placing the program code in the smart card memory

The chip surface area per 1-bit EEPROM cell is four times that of a 1-bit ROM cell. Therefore, for purely economic reasons, the ROM should contain as much program code as possible. In the ROM of the microcontroller, the entire operating system core is placed, as well as the main parts of the other operating system programs. In order to make the size of the expensive EEPROM as small as possible, some operating systems run entirely in ROM with only data stored in the EEPROM. Usually, in the completed version of the smart card software, only a...

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Smart Card Software Security

The security of smart card software is based on the use of cryptographic information protection. Cryptography is used to authenticate system objects, such as users, cards, and terminals, and to encrypt the smart card’s communication with the outside world. Cryptographic keys are stored in the card files, and cryptographic algorithms and protocols are executed in the card software. Cryptographic functions built into the smart card to meet its own security requirements can also be used to perform security functions in other systems. The...

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