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Production and specification of smart cards

Today, the magnetic stripe no longer guarantees the necessary level of protection of information from forgery. Therefore, manufacturers began to produce cards with a chip, which are very often called smart cards. Smart cards can perform various data processing operations. The main advantage of smart cards is their reliability, security and extensive functionality, and the disadvantage is the relatively high cost. The cost of smart cards is determined by the price of the chip, depending on the size of the internal memory and for a circulation...

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Smart Card memory architecture

Apart from the processor, the most important elements of a microcontroller are different types of memory. Smart card microcontrollers have three types of memory: random access memory (RAM), permanent memory (ROM), and non-volatile memory (EEPROM). RAMRAM is a part of the smart card’s memory in which data can be stored and changed during a session. The number of memory accesses is unlimited. Power supply is required for the RAM to work. When the power is turned off or temporarily disconnected, the contents of the RAM are not saved. A RAM...

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Security of using EMV Software in microprocessor cards

Smart Card Central Processing Unit The smart card processor requires high reliability. Therefore, smart cards usually use processors that have been tested for a long time in other areas. Smart card manufacturers prefer to trust older processors that have been tested in practice, rather than experiment with the latest developments of semiconductor chip manufacturers. A similar approach is taken by the aerospace industry, for which the functional safety of the components used is vital. Typically, the size of addressable memory in a smart card...

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Hardware for Smart Card Microcontrollers

Smart Card Microcontrollers The central element of a microprocessor-based smart card is a microcontroller built into the card. In contact smart cards, the chip with the microcontroller is located under the contact pad. The microcontroller initiates, manages, and monitors all smart card operations. There are two main variants of microcontroller architecture: the classical von Neumann architecture and the Harvard architecture. The von Neumann architecture is characterized by shared access to program and data memory. Under the Harvard...

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Microprocessor smart cards with dual interface

As noted above, the traditional areas of application of microprocessor-based contact smart cards are payment applications (money card, e-wallet). Contactless microprocessor-based smart cards are traditionally used in applications that require user friendliness, such as access control systems, and short transaction times, such as electronic ticket payment systems for public transport. The trend towards combining payment applications with typical contactless applications (smart card with ticket function) eventually led to the development of a...

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Smart cards for EMV Software

Features and benefits of contactless smart cards In order to transfer energy, a strong high-frequency magnetic field is generated in the terminal winding. Commonly used frequencies are 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz. If a smart card is inserted into the vicinity of the terminal, a portion of the terminal’s magnetic field passes through the winding of this card, which induces the Ui voltage. This voltage is rectified to serve as an energy source for the chip. Since the connection between the terminal and card windings is quite weak, the...

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Contactless smart card EMV interface

Smart cards with a contactless interface allow you to overcome the noted technical problems. Contactless cards do not require any electrical connection between the smart card and the card terminal in order to transfer energy and data over a short distance. Let’s take a closer look at the principles of the contactless interface between the smart card and the terminal. Like systems with contact-type smart cards, a system that uses cards with a contactless interface includes two components, namely the card itself and a terminal that can...

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Types of EMV cards: Software certification in the payment system

Definition of terminology and classification There is no doubt that the main factor in choosing a particular type of emv card should be the compliance of this card product with the business tasks solved by the issuing bank. The amount of memory, processor performance, speed of information exchange with the terminal device and other technical characteristics of the card are secondary parameters designed to provide its necessary functionality. As an example, confirming the primacy of business tasks in comparison with the technical...

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Physical Access Control System (PACS)

An access card is a user ID that contains some information – a key that opens a door or access to resources. It is difficult to imagine the modern world without contact and contactless identification technologies. The use of bank cards (with a magnetic stripe, cards with an EMV chip, contactless payments PayPass, payWave); RFID cards for transport, entertainment and loyalty programs: the issuance of MHI policies and social cards of Muscovites, and, of course, cards of physical access and logical access to the computer and IT resources of the...

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Visa has introduced a new program for EMV payments

Visa has introduced an updated Visa Secure program (previously known as Verified by Visa), which helps to improve the security of online transactions, the press service of the international payment system reports. “Since April 18, the new protocol is available in the market of Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, including Russia. Visa Secure offers rules and policies that must be followed by trade and service enterprises (tsps) and issuing banks to authenticate transactions during online purchases and verify the...

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